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This kit will help you in building one of the simplest electric motors, a 'homopolar' motor (also referred to as a 'monopolar' motor). A homopolar ('one pole') motor does not involve a polarity change as is utilized in more complex motors. The first of these types of motors are credited to Michael Faraday. In 1821, he built and demonstrated motors that used these principles to the Royal Institution in London. Faraday's motor used a movable wire that rotated about a magnet that was sitting in a pool of mercury.
Our motors will use a single battery, a wire and a powerful neodymium magnet. Review all instructions before trying this with your class. Also, don't miss the Important notes and suggestions section below.
Building the basic motor:
The nail should begin to rotate. Make note of the direction of rotation. Flip the magnet over, so the opposite pole is in contact with the nail. What change occurs? Try flipping over the battery, so the nail is contacting the negative (-) end. How does this effect your motor? Will the motor work if, rather than touching the end of the wire to the edge of the magnet, you touch the wire to the side of the shaft of the nail? Why, or why not?
Building the spiral motor:
Building the butterfly motor: The butterfly motor is different because it has two wire 'arms' sticking out in opposite directions. Very decorative motors can be made by bending the wire into wings, a heart, or many other shapes. It can be challenging to get this type of motor balanced correctly. Also, the motor can be made to run longer by finding ways of controlling the speed of the spinning wire.
What makes them work?
One fascinating fact about electromagnetism is that when charges are sitting still they don't interact with a magnetic field that is constant. However, electricity starts affecting magnetism and vice versa as soon as one starts changing.
When charges begin to move they feel a force from the magnetic field. The direction of the force depends on which way the charge is moving and which way the magnetic field is going. Still more interesting is that the force the charge feels is not in the direction of the magnetic field or of its motion, rather it is perpendicular to both. This force is called the Lorentz force. (For further study your student could research the Lorentz force and Hendrik Lornentz who discovered it.)
In the basic motor, the direction of a given current will change depending on which end of the battery has the magnet, sometimes the negative (-) current will be flowing down the nail, through the magnet and to the outside edge of the magnet. Sometime it will flow from the outside edge through to the middle and back up the nail. Either way the direction of the current flow will be along the radius of the magnet. The magnetic field points from one flat side of the magnet to the other.
The only direction that is perpendicular to both the magnetic field and the direction of the current is the direction that would cause the nail (or coil, or 'wings') to spin. One little extra piece your students may have noticed on their own. When a strong magnet is attached to certain metals it makes the metal object magnetic as well. In case of the basic motor the neodymium magnet is attached to the head of a nail and then the nail itself becomes magnetic.
All homopolar motors work on these basic principals. Most small electric motors are 'Brushed DC' motors. The brushes complete the circuit of an electromagnet which is attracted to a permanent magnet, thus causing the armature to turn. When the two magnets get close enough, the polarity of the electromagnet is changed so that it pushes away from the permanent magnet and continues moving. These homopolar motors designs all take advantage of the perpendicular Lorentz force, eliminating the need for a commutator, brushes and other components used in the more complex motors.
Important notes and suggestions:
With all of these motors, don't be surprised if they spin so quickly that the quickly shake themselves apart. It may take many adjustments to get them to spin freely for long periods. Also, keep in mind that the wire will get hot, especially if run longer.
What methods can your student develop to control the speed of the motors to make them more stable?
The wires included in this kit are copper-core. How might aluminum or other wires effect performance? For the butterfly motor, how do wide versus narrow 'wings' effect the motor?
Have your students research how more practical motors are made. Have them find the definitions for the motor components, such as armature, commutator, or brushes. Could the exposed contacts on your homopolar motors be described as brushes? Why or why not?
Can your student have
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